Healthy Streets Insight series: Rebalancing the Street

Calles saludables: reequilibrar la calle

Chapman Taylor’s Transport & Infrastructure team provides support on many of our mixed-use urban development projects, which require a progressive, joined up, multi-sectoral and multidisciplinary approach.

COVID-19 has triggered a step change in how we design the urban public realm and how that interfaces with transport infrastructure and functions. In a new series of Insight papers by Chapman Taylor UK Transportation Director Peter Farmer, we explore five interlinked aspects influencing our approach:

  • Rebalancing the street: a shift in street priorities
  • The “Elastic Street”: the need to reconnect with our environment and transport options
  • The new wave cycling boom and its impacts
  • The street and buildings: new demands of the interface with the public realm
  • Street charging: accommodating e-cars and bikes in urban residential streets

In this first paper, we explore initiatives for bringing about a positive evolution of the street.

Changing how we perceive our streets

The street performs three key functions: movement and access, commerce, and as human spaces where society interacts and manifests both the best and the worse of itself. Streets show who we are and what we value at both the micro and macro level. As well as indicating our priorities in terms of social economics, they demonstrate how diverse and inclusive we are.

60 years of car-centric planning has resulted in the deterioration of our streetscapes, but the trend has started to be reversed (albeit with strong opposition). We have become so car-reliant that we insist on accommodating them at the expense of the quality and ease of use of our streets.

Many car trips are within walking distances and are unnecessary. Beyond walking distance, we need to ensure that there are viable alternatives to the car and thus achieve a rebalancing of our streetscapes. We also need to change priorities; recent history has shown that, while initially unpopular, many progressive schemes quickly become accepted as their wider benefits are realised.

The COVID-19 outbreak has seen an explosion of temporary schemes which reprioritise streets for the benefit of pedestrians and a range of “micro mobility” transport modes. It has also been marked by a rise in public demand for a change of priorities.

The increased public demand for healthier streets should not just be about influencing national and local government policy; it also requires the individual to take responsibility for the public realm and the boundary between public and private realms. The latter interface is one that we have increasingly neglected, if not universally, and have consciously or otherwise devolved to “others”. Instead, it should be part of our wider social responsibility as individuals, illustrating how the street reflects our individual and collective relationships with the wider community.

COVID-19 and public realm design and management

A number of cities around the world have been temporarily reallocating road space from cars to pedestrians and cyclists, helping key workers to keep moving and residents in coronavirus lockdown to keep healthy and active while socially distancing.

During lockdown in Philadelphia, officials closed 4.7 miles of Martin Luther King Jr. Drive to cars as leisure trails became overwhelmed by residents seeking their daily exercise. Minneapolis closed part of its riverfront parkways to cars while Denver introduced pop-up cycling and walking lanes.

Budapest has seen a drop in bus use by 50%, in road traffic and the city has now planned a cycling network on its main roads.

Sydney, Perth and Adelaide in Australia, Chapel Hill in the US and Calgary in Canada are among the cities that have made pedestrian crossings automatic in some districts so that people do not have to press a button – their right of way is immediate.

In Berlin, a number of streets have wide new bike lanes in place of motor vehicle lanes. Bogotá has replaced 35km of traffic lanes with emergency bike lanes as an alternative to people using public transport, mirroring the Colombian capital’s TransMilenio bus rapid transit network.

In the UK, large areas of London were closed to cars and vans to allow people to walk and cycle safely as the COVID-19 lockdown was eased in early summer. In Bristol, a scheme has been announced to turn part of the historic centre into a pedestrian-only zone within months as part of plans to change how people get around the city during and after the COVID-19 crisis.

COVID-19 has forced us to re-evaluate our relationship with the spaces outside our homes and offices and to reconsider our priorities as a society when it comes to shared spaces.

Our approach to planning has been so car-based that the test moving forward is how much we can now detach ourselves individually and collectively from the dominance of car ownership and the need for it to be parked “right outside”.

There are many pressures on our urban streets, including parking, refuse, electrical charging and social activities and we all need to take care of the urban realm and not assume it is someone else’s issue.

INSERT CAR ON PAVEMENT SKETCH.

Healthy Streets and a Dutch template for peaceful coexistence

Our existing and future streets are going to regain a social role suppressed for several decades by the domination of the car. It is our contention that this will not rely just on better design because changes in society and technology will be pushing the transition. We will still have some private vehicle ownership, but this will not prevent the street being transformed as society changes.

In urban areas, streets typically make up 80% of public space, and the vast majority of transport happens in these public spaces. This affects our daily lives in many ways, including significantly impacting on our health and wellbeing.

Chapman Taylor has been advocating the principles of “Healthy Streets”, which have been increasingly widely accepted, extending these to the entire public realm. We have used many of the principles in the Healthy Streets Check for Designers, developed in cities such as London, and have adapted these to inform our work throughout the company.

As cycle numbers increase, they will come increasingly in conflict with pedestrians and other modes of travel, particularly when combined with the introduction of e-bikes and e-scooters. we will explore some of these potential problems in our next Insight paper of this series.

In urban areas, we have to accommodate mixed transport modes and this relies on showing respect –respect for a shared public realm by not allowing it to be dominated by private cars, respect for pedestrians by drivers not parking on pavements and by cyclists not speeding through predominantly pedestrian areas, for us all by vehicle users keeping below speed limits. Very importantly, developers need to show respect for the residents and users of the spaces they build by providing for a new, more eclectic way of living that offers generous space to accommodate different needs.

We can look to close neighbours for ideas and guidance on how to manage a wide mix of transport modes in urban areas. For example, the bicycle is a well-established and significant mode of transport in the Netherlands, with Amsterdam being one of the world’s busiest cycling capitals.

Over recent years, increasing congestion and bicycle jams have prompted the Dutch to rethink urban priorities. While bikes account for an estimated 68% of journeys made in Dutch city centres, they are allocated just 11% of infrastructure space, with cars getting 44%.

Traditionally, we have classified traffic in to three types – motor vehicles, cycling and walking – and we seek to fully accommodate each in most streets. However, an emerging line of thought is taking us beyond simply pedestrianising problem areas, proposing a new way of prioritising street users.

Essentially, the proposal would group vehicles in “vehicle families” based on their mass and width. Urban spaces would be designed for the specific needs of one of these “families”, which would be designated as the dominant user of that particular space. Other “families” would be guests in that space, but the design of the area would not be changed for their needs.

Group

Description

Note

A

People Walking

B

People cycling

C

The light motorised vehicle

Mopeds, scooters but also motor bikes

D

Cars and “car-like” vehicles.

E

The group of the largest vehicles in the urban area.

Buses and Trucks.

F

Urban vehicles that have their own tracks.

Such as trams and guided buses.

Streets and public spaces would be categorised in four types with the private car no longer the primary defining parameter. Speeds would no longer be determined by the vehicles, but rather by how an area of the city is used and by which type of street-user “family”. Four types of cityscape have been defined so far:

Type

Description

Speed limit

Pedestrian Zone

Where walking is the dominant form of traffic. This can be the shopping area or the place where people go to bars and restaurants.

10 km or 6 miles/h.

Cycling Zone

Here, people cycling are the dominant population. Light motor vehicles would have to behave as guests.

20 km or 12 miles/h.

Light Motor Vehicle Zone

This area can be for a mix of users, including cyclists and even cars. Cars will have to behave as guests.

30 km or 18 miles/h.

Motor Vehicle Zone

Other user groups, such as pedestrians and cyclists, can be allowed in this area, but in their own spaces. Vehicles of type E and F can share the space.

50 km or 30 miles/h.

The initial findings are that reduced differences in speed and mass lead to safer traffic environments.

Reclaiming the streets

COVID-19 has highlighted the demand for less domination of external spaces by motor vehicles[i].

INSERT TEMP PARKLET

Some believe that we will return to the status quo ante as things return to “normality”, but others maintain that we have an opportunity to rebalance the environment.

To reclaim urban street space from car parking will require a shift in our attitude to the private car. Car ownership has continued to increase, but recent studies, as well as our experience during the COVID-19 pandemic, suggest that we are seeing a shift in attitudes.

For example, a study commissioned by the Department for Transport in 2018[ii] found that changes in living circumstances meant that most young people no longer gained a driving licence or regularly drove a car. The number of teenagers holding a driving licence has dropped by almost 40% in two decades.

Kiron Chatterjee, Associate Professor of Travel Behaviour at UWE Bristol, who led the study, said that a rejection of car use was the “new norm”, adding that it was “difficult to envisage” a return to a car ownership boom such as the one witnessed between the 1960s and 1980s.

“While the change in young people’s travel behaviour is to be welcomed in that it aligns with aims to reduce the adverse impacts of transport use, such as air pollution and carbon emissions, it is important that young people have alternatives to the car for getting to education, employment and social destinations,” Dr Chatterjee said. “Otherwise there could be damaging impacts on their life opportunities and wellbeing.”

As we move to an increasingly mixed-use model of urban regeneration and development, there is a greater need for mode and use integration. Residential demands are different to those of the workplace and retail sectors. Our urban spaces are increasingly becoming a leisure resource as well.

The public realm also extends to the increasing number of public areas in our towns and cities considered to be pedestrian-prioritised. In developing these spaces, designers have focused on foot traffic, but inclusion for cyclists and disabled people is equally important, particularly with the increasing emphasis on mixed-use provision to replace the dominance of retail.

It is important to see how different modes function within the spaces we plan as this will be influenced by the activity and amenity within the space. Pedestrians in a square move in a totally different way to cyclists on a through-route or cyclists who want to browse. Even pedestrians move through the space in different ways, such as the athletes among us who run to work or map out 1k and 5k lunch break walks or runs.

The growth of cycling is requiring us to rethink a number of aspects of the built environment. This is covered more fully in the subsequent papers in this series.

The 15-minute village city

Many UK cities comprise of a traditional network of “villages” that were gradually bound together as one. In London, we now know these as districts such as Clerkenwell, Hampstead, Chelsea, Dulwich, even Soho and Marylebone. Cities around the world are now planning urban environments on a scale reminiscent of this structure, and this is significantly changing our attitude to transport planning and provision within built schemes.

The most recent example occurred earlier this year when Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo announced her intention to remodel the city so that residents and workers can have all their needs, met be they for work, shopping, health or culture, within 15 minutes’ walk of their own “doorstep”. This is not an idle statement; Hidalgo has already barred the most polluting vehicles from the city, banished cars from the Seine quayside and reclaimed road space for trees and pedestrians.

The principle is to provide a mix of many uses within close proximity of each other and of where people live.

In the past century or so, the planning authorities have studiously separated residential areas from retail, entertainment, manufacturing and office districts. Car-centric suburban zoning further intensified this separation, leading to an era of giant, consolidated, single-use developments. This approach made sense when some of the uses made for poor neighbours, but is now increasingly regarded as out of date.

The concept of “hyper proximity[iii]” aims to stitch the traditional mixed-use urban fabric back together. Other cities are doing likewise. Barcelona’s has its “superblocks,” designed to encourage people living within car-free, multi-block zones to expand their daily social lives out into safer, cleaner streets, and to encourage the growth of retail, entertainment and other services within easy reach.

Portland, Oregon, has introduced a concept of “Walking Neighbourhood” planning, which aims to establish neighbourhoods where all basic needs can be met within walking distance over 90% of the city, while Melbourne in Australia adopted a similar pattern in a pilot in 2018.

In London’s Barking and Dagenham, the “Every One Every Day’[iv] initiative takes the hyper-local development model in a slightly different direction, one designed to boost social cohesion and economic opportunity.

Wider impacts

Use of the private car may reduce, but it will remain part of our lives we will still need to integrate it with public and private transport, including walking, in a more intelligent and flexible way.

As we change our relationship with our immediate and wider urban environments, the pressures imposed by modes of transport on our environment will change. We will still need to travel long distances, including internationally, but our more integrated and flexible urban spaces will become much less reliant on private motor vehicles and much more inclusive. This is not just a result of needing to be more environmentally responsible, but that will be a major bonus. At Chapman Taylor we are ensure that transport and our relationship with the ‘street’ is upper most within our design considerations.

[i] https://www.livingstreets.org.uk/news-and-blog/blog/putting-the-park-in-parking

[ii] https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/young-peoples-travel-whats-changed-and-why

[iii] Urban life in 2030: hyper-proximity and otherness;

[iv] https://www.weareeveryone.org/

El equipo de Transporte e Infraestructura de Chapman Taylor brinda apoyo en muchos de nuestros proyectos de desarrollo urbano de uso mixto, que requieren un enfoque progresivo, conjunto, multisectorial y multidisciplinario.

El COVID-19 ha provocado un cambio radical en la forma en que diseñamos el ámbito público urbano y cómo interactúa con la infraestructura y las funciones de transporte. En una nueva serie de artículos de Insight del director de transporte de Chapman Taylor en el Reino Unido, Peter Farmer, exploramos cinco aspectos interrelacionados que influyen en nuestro enfoque:

• Reequilibrar la calle: un cambio en las prioridades de la calle

• La “calle elástica”: la necesidad de reconectarnos con nuestro entorno y opciones de transporte

• El boom del ciclismo, variantes y sus impactos

• La calle y los edificios: nuevas en la relación con el ámbito público

• Puntos de carga: acomodación de coches eléctricos y bicicletas en calles residenciales urbanas

En este primer artículo, exploramos iniciativas para lograr una evolución positiva de la calle.

Cambiando la forma en que percibimos nuestras calles

La calle cumple tres funciones clave: movimiento y acceso, comercio y espacios humanos donde la sociedad interactúa y manifiesta tanto lo mejor como lo peor de sí misma. Las calles muestran quiénes somos y qué valoramos tanto a nivel micro como macro. Además de indicar nuestras prioridades en términos de economía social demuestran lo diversos e inclusivos que somos.

60 años de planificación centrada en el automóvil han provocado el deterioro de nuestros paisajes urbanos pero la tendencia ha comenzado a revertirse (aunque con una fuerte oposición). Nos hemos vuelto tan dependientes del automóvil que insistimos en acomodarlos a expensas de la calidad y facilidad de uso de nuestras calles. Muchos viajes en automóvil se realizan a poca distancia a pie y son innecesarios. Más allá de la distancia a pie, debemos asegurarnos de que existen alternativas viables al automóvil y así lograr un reequilibrio de nuestros paisajes urbanos.

También necesitamos cambiar las prioridades. La historia reciente ha demostrado que, aunque inicialmente impopulares, muchos esquemas progresistas se aceptan rápidamente a medida que se obtienen sus beneficios más amplios. El brote de COVID-19 ha visto una explosión de esquemas temporales que cambian la prioridad de las calles en beneficio de los peatones y una variedad de modos de transporte de "micro movilidad". También se ha caracterizado por un aumento de la demanda pública de un cambio de prioridades.

El aumento de la demanda pública de calles más saludables no debería tener como único objetivo influir en la política del gobierno nacional y local; también requiere que el individuo asuma la responsabilidad del ámbito público y el límite entre los ámbitos público y privado. La última interfaz es una que hemos descuidado cada vez más, si no universalmente, y la hemos delegado conscientemente o de otro modo a "otros". En cambio, debería ser parte de nuestra responsabilidad social más amplia como individuos, ilustrando cómo la calle refleja nuestras relaciones individuales y colectivas con la comunidad en general.

COVID-19: diseño y gestión de dominios públicos

Varias ciudades de todo el mundo han reasignado temporalmente el espacio vial de los automóviles a los peatones y ciclistas, lo que ayuda a los trabajadores clave a seguir en movimiento y a los residentes encerrados por el coronavirus a mantenerse saludables y activos mientras se distancian socialmente.

Durante el cierre en Filadelfia, los funcionarios cerraron 4.7 millas de Martin Luther King Jr. Drive a los automóviles cuando los senderos de ocio se volvieron abrumados por residentes que buscaban su ejercicio diario. Minneapolis cerró parte de sus avenidas frente al río a los automóviles, mientras que Denver introdujo carriles para peatones y ciclistas emergentes. Budapest ha visto una caída en el uso de autobuses en un 50%, en el tráfico por carretera y la ciudad ahora ha planeado una red de bicicletas en sus carreteras principales.

Sydney, Perth y Adelaide en Australia, Chapel Hill en los EE. UU. Y Calgary en Canadá se encuentran entre las ciudades que han hecho que los pasos de peatones sean automáticos en algunos distritos para que las personas no tengan que presionar un botón: su derecho de paso es inmediato.

En Berlín, varias calles tienen nuevos carriles para bicicletas anchos en lugar de carriles para vehículos motorizados. Bogotá ha reemplazado 35 km de carriles de tráfico con carriles para bicicletas de emergencia como una alternativa a las personas que usan el transporte público, reflejando la red de tránsito rápido de autobuses TransMilenio de la capital colombiana.

En el Reino Unido grandes áreas de Londres se cerraron a los automóviles y furgonetas para permitir que las personas caminen y anden en bicicleta de manera segura, ya que el bloqueo de COVID-19 se alivió a principios del verano. En Bristol, se anunció un plan para convertir parte del centro histórico en una zona solo para peatones en unos meses como parte de los planes para cambiar la forma en que las personas se mueven por la ciudad durante y después de la crisis del COVID-19.

El virus nos ha obligado a reevaluar nuestra relación con los espacios exteriores a nuestros hogares y oficinas y a reconsiderar nuestras prioridades como sociedad en lo que se refiere a espacios compartidos.

Nuestro enfoque de la planificación urbana se ha basado tanto en el automóvil que la prueba en el futuro es cuánto podemos ahora separarnos individual y colectivamente del dominio de la propiedad del automóvil y la necesidad de que estar estacionado "justo enfrente".

Hay muchas presiones en nuestras calles, incluido el estacionamiento, la basura, la carga eléctrica y las actividades sociales, y todos debemos cuidar el ámbito urbano y no asumir que es un problema de otra persona.

Healthy Streets and a Dutch template for peaceful coexistence

Our existing and future streets are going to regain a social role suppressed for several decades by the domination of the car. It is our contention that this will not rely just on better design because changes in society and technology will be pushing the transition. We will still have some private vehicle ownership, but this will not prevent the street being transformed as society changes.

In urban areas, streets typically make up 80% of public space, and the vast majority of transport happens in these public spaces. This affects our daily lives in many ways, including significantly impacting on our health and wellbeing.

Chapman Taylor has been advocating the principles of “Healthy Streets”, which have been increasingly widely accepted, extending these to the entire public realm. We have used many of the principles in the Healthy Streets Check for Designers, developed in cities such as London, and have adapted these to inform our work throughout the company.

As cycle numbers increase, they will come increasingly in conflict with pedestrians and other modes of travel, particularly when combined with the introduction of e-bikes and e-scooters. we will explore some of these potential problems in our next Insight paper of this series.

In urban areas, we have to accommodate mixed transport modes and this relies on showing respect –respect for a shared public realm by not allowing it to be dominated by private cars, respect for pedestrians by drivers not parking on pavements and by cyclists not speeding through predominantly pedestrian areas, for us all by vehicle users keeping below speed limits. Very importantly, developers need to show respect for the residents and users of the spaces they build by providing for a new, more eclectic way of living that offers generous space to accommodate different needs.

We can look to close neighbours for ideas and guidance on how to manage a wide mix of transport modes in urban areas. For example, the bicycle is a well-established and significant mode of transport in the Netherlands, with Amsterdam being one of the world’s busiest cycling capitals.

Over recent years, increasing congestion and bicycle jams have prompted the Dutch to rethink urban priorities. While bikes account for an estimated 68% of journeys made in Dutch city centres, they are allocated just 11% of infrastructure space, with cars getting 44%.

Traditionally, we have classified traffic in to three types – motor vehicles, cycling and walking – and we seek to fully accommodate each in most streets. However, an emerging line of thought is taking us beyond simply pedestrianising problem areas, proposing a new way of prioritising street users.

Essentially, the proposal would group vehicles in “vehicle families” based on their mass and width. Urban spaces would be designed for the specific needs of one of these “families”, which would be designated as the dominant user of that particular space. Other “families” would be guests in that space, but the design of the area would not be changed for their needs.

Group

Description

Note

A

People Walking

B

People cycling

C

The light motorised vehicle

Mopeds, scooters but also motor bikes

D

Cars and “car-like” vehicles.

E

The group of the largest vehicles in the urban area.

Buses and Trucks.

F

Urban vehicles that have their own tracks.

Such as trams and guided buses.

Streets and public spaces would be categorised in four types with the private car no longer the primary defining parameter. Speeds would no longer be determined by the vehicles, but rather by how an area of the city is used and by which type of street-user “family”. Four types of cityscape have been defined so far:

Type

Description

Speed limit

Pedestrian Zone

Where walking is the dominant form of traffic. This can be the shopping area or the place where people go to bars and restaurants.

10 km or 6 miles/h.

Cycling Zone

Here, people cycling are the dominant population. Light motor vehicles would have to behave as guests.

20 km or 12 miles/h.

Light Motor Vehicle Zone

This area can be for a mix of users, including cyclists and even cars. Cars will have to behave as guests.

30 km or 18 miles/h.

Motor Vehicle Zone

Other user groups, such as pedestrians and cyclists, can be allowed in this area, but in their own spaces. Vehicles of type E and F can share the space.

50 km or 30 miles/h.

The initial findings are that reduced differences in speed and mass lead to safer traffic environments.

Reclaiming the streets

COVID-19 has highlighted the demand for less domination of external spaces by motor vehicles[i].

Calles saludables y un modelo holandés para la convivencia pacífica

Nuestras calles actuales y futuras van a recuperar un papel social reprimido durante varias décadas por el dominio del automóvil. Creemos que esto no dependerá solo de un mejor diseño porque los cambios en la sociedad y la tecnología impulsarán la transición. Seguiremos teniendo cierta propiedad de vehículos privados pero esto no evitará que la calle se transforme a medida que cambia la sociedad.

En las zonas urbanas, las calles suelen representar el 80% del espacio público y la gran mayoría del transporte ocurre en estos espacios. Esto afecta nuestra vida diaria de muchas maneras incluyendo el impacto significativo en nuestra salud y bienestar.

Chapman Taylor ha estado defendiendo los principios de “Calles Saludables”, que han sido cada vez más aceptados, extendiéndolos a todo el ámbito público. Hemos utilizado muchos de los principios del “Healthy Streets Check for Designers” desarrollado en ciudades como Londres y los hemos adaptado para informar a todos nuestros estudios internacionales.

A medida que aumente el número de bicicletas entrarán en conflicto cada vez más con los peatones y otros modos de viaje, especialmente cuando se combinen con la introducción de bicicletas eléctricas y scooters eléctricos. Exploraremos algunos de estos problemas potenciales en nuestro próximo artículo de Insight de esta serie.

En las zonas urbanas tenemos que acomodarnos a los modos de transporte mixtos y esto se fundamenta en un ejercicio de respeto: respeto a un ámbito público compartido al no permitir que esté dominado por automóviles privados, respeto a los peatones por los conductores que no estacionan en las aceras y por los ciclistas que no pasan a alta velocidad. Lo que es más importante e que los desarrolladores deben mostrar respeto por los residentes y usuarios de los espacios que construyen al proporcionar una nueva forma de vida más ecléctica que ofrece un espacio generoso para adaptarse a las diferentes necesidades.

Podemos buscar a vecinos cercanos para obtener ideas y orientación sobre cómo gestionar una amplia combinación de modos de transporte en áreas urbanas. Por ejemplo, la bicicleta es un medio de transporte importante y bien establecido en los Países Bajos, siendo Ámsterdam una de las capitales ciclistas más concurridas del mundo. En los últimos años, la creciente congestión y los atascos de bicicletas han llevado a los holandeses a reconsiderar las prioridades urbanas.

Si bien las bicicletas representan aproximadamente el 68% de los viajes realizados en los centros de las ciudades holandesas, se les asigna solo el 11% del espacio de infraestructura, y los automóviles obtienen el 44%. Tradicionalmente, hemos clasificado el tráfico en tres tipos: vehículos motorizados, ciclismo y peatones y buscamos acomodarlos por completo en la mayoría de las calles. Sin embargo, una línea de pensamiento emergente nos está llevando más allá de la simple peatonalización de áreas problemáticas, proponiendo una nueva forma de priorizar a los usuarios de la calle.

Básicamente, la propuesta agruparía los vehículos en "familias de vehículos" en función de su masa y ancho. Los espacios urbanos se diseñarían para las necesidades específicas de una de estas "familias" que sería designada como el usuario dominante de ese espacio en particular. Otras "familias" serían huéspedes en ese espacio pero el diseño del área no cambiaría para sus necesidades.


Descripción del grupo

Nota

A

Personas caminando

B

Personas en bicicleta

C

El vehículo motorizado ligero

Ciclomotores, scooters pero también motos

D

Automóviles y vehículos "similares a automóviles".

E

El grupo de vehículos más grandes del área urbana.

Autobuses y Camiones.

F

Vehículos urbanos que tienen sus propias pistas.

Como tranvías y autobuses guiados.



Las calles y los espacios públicos se clasificarían en cuatro tipos y el automóvil privado dejaría de ser el parámetro de definición principal. Las velocidades ya no serían determinadas por los vehículos, sino más bien por cómo se usa un área de la ciudad y por qué tipo de “familia” de usuarios de la calle. Hasta ahora se han definido cuatro tipos de paisaje urbano:

Tipo

Descripción

Límite de velocidad

Zona peatonal

Donde caminar es la forma dominante de tráfico. Esta puede ser la zona comercial o el lugar donde la gente va a bares y restaurantes.

10 km o 6 millas/h.

Zona de bicicletas

Aquí, la gente en bicicleta es la población dominante. Los vehículos de motor ligeros tendrían que comportarse como invitados.

20 km o 12 millas/h.

Zona de vehículos de motor ligero

Esta área puede ser para una combinación de usuarios, incluidos ciclistas e incluso automóviles. Los coches tendrán que comportarse como invitados.

30 km o 18 millas/h.

Zona de vehículos de motor

Otros grupos de usuarios, como peatones y ciclistas, pueden estar permitidos en esta área, pero en sus propios espacios. Los vehículos de tipo E y F pueden compartir el espacio.

50 km o 30 millas/h.

Los hallazgos iniciales son que las diferencias reducidas en velocidad y masa conducen a entornos de tráfico más seguros.

Recuperando las calles

COVID-19 ha destacado la demanda de un menor dominio de los espacios exteriores por parte de los vehículos de motor[i].

Some believe that we will return to the status quo ante as things return to “normality”, but others maintain that we have an opportunity to rebalance the environment.

To reclaim urban street space from car parking will require a shift in our attitude to the private car. Car ownership has continued to increase, but recent studies, as well as our experience during the COVID-19 pandemic, suggest that we are seeing a shift in attitudes.

For example, a study commissioned by the Department for Transport in 2018[ii] found that changes in living circumstances meant that most young people no longer gained a driving licence or regularly drove a car. The number of teenagers holding a driving licence has dropped by almost 40% in two decades.

Kiron Chatterjee, Associate Professor of Travel Behaviour at UWE Bristol, who led the study, said that a rejection of car use was the “new norm”, adding that it was “difficult to envisage” a return to a car ownership boom such as the one witnessed between the 1960s and 1980s.

“While the change in young people’s travel behaviour is to be welcomed in that it aligns with aims to reduce the adverse impacts of transport use, such as air pollution and carbon emissions, it is important that young people have alternatives to the car for getting to education, employment and social destinations,” Dr Chatterjee said. “Otherwise there could be damaging impacts on their life opportunities and wellbeing.”

As we move to an increasingly mixed-use model of urban regeneration and development, there is a greater need for mode and use integration. Residential demands are different to those of the workplace and retail sectors. Our urban spaces are increasingly becoming a leisure resource as well.

The public realm also extends to the increasing number of public areas in our towns and cities considered to be pedestrian-prioritised. In developing these spaces, designers have focused on foot traffic, but inclusion for cyclists and disabled people is equally important, particularly with the increasing emphasis on mixed-use provision to replace the dominance of retail.

It is important to see how different modes function within the spaces we plan as this will be influenced by the activity and amenity within the space. Pedestrians in a square move in a totally different way to cyclists on a through-route or cyclists who want to browse. Even pedestrians move through the space in different ways, such as the athletes among us who run to work or map out 1k and 5k lunch break walks or runs.

The growth of cycling is requiring us to rethink a number of aspects of the built environment. This is covered more fully in the subsequent papers in this series.

The 15-minute village city

Many UK cities comprise of a traditional network of “villages” that were gradually bound together as one. In London, we now know these as districts such as Clerkenwell, Hampstead, Chelsea, Dulwich, even Soho and Marylebone. Cities around the world are now planning urban environments on a scale reminiscent of this structure, and this is significantly changing our attitude to transport planning and provision within built schemes.

The most recent example occurred earlier this year when Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo announced her intention to remodel the city so that residents and workers can have all their needs, met be they for work, shopping, health or culture, within 15 minutes’ walk of their own “doorstep”. This is not an idle statement; Hidalgo has already barred the most polluting vehicles from the city, banished cars from the Seine quayside and reclaimed road space for trees and pedestrians.

The principle is to provide a mix of many uses within close proximity of each other and of where people live.

In the past century or so, the planning authorities have studiously separated residential areas from retail, entertainment, manufacturing and office districts. Car-centric suburban zoning further intensified this separation, leading to an era of giant, consolidated, single-use developments. This approach made sense when some of the uses made for poor neighbours, but is now increasingly regarded as out of date.

The concept of “hyper proximity[iii]” aims to stitch the traditional mixed-use urban fabric back together. Other cities are doing likewise. Barcelona’s has its “superblocks,” designed to encourage people living within car-free, multi-block zones to expand their daily social lives out into safer, cleaner streets, and to encourage the growth of retail, entertainment and other services within easy reach.

Portland, Oregon, has introduced a concept of “Walking Neighbourhood” planning, which aims to establish neighbourhoods where all basic needs can be met within walking distance over 90% of the city, while Melbourne in Australia adopted a similar pattern in a pilot in 2018.

In London’s Barking and Dagenham, the “Every One Every Day’[iv] initiative takes the hyper-local development model in a slightly different direction, one designed to boost social cohesion and economic opportunity.

Wider impacts

Use of the private car may reduce, but it will remain part of our lives we will still need to integrate it with public and private transport, including walking, in a more intelligent and flexible way.

As we change our relationship with our immediate and wider urban environments, the pressures imposed by modes of transport on our environment will change. We will still need to travel long distances, including internationally, but our more integrated and flexible urban spaces will become much less reliant on private motor vehicles and much more inclusive. This is not just a result of needing to be more environmentally responsible, but that will be a major bonus. At Chapman Taylor we are ensure that transport and our relationship with the ‘street’ is upper most within our design considerations.

[i] https://www.livingstreets.org.uk/news-and-blog/blog/putting-the-park-in-parking

[ii] https://www.gov.uk/government/...

[iii] Urban life in 2030: hyper-proximity and otherness;

[iv] https://www.weareeveryone.org/

Algunos creen que volveremos al status quo ante cuando las cosas vuelvan a la “normalidad”, pero otros sostienen que tenemos la oportunidad de reequilibrar el medio ambiente.

Para recuperar el espacio urbano en las calles del estacionamiento de automóviles será necesario un cambio en nuestra actitud hacia el automóvil privado. La propiedad de automóviles ha seguido aumentando pero estudios recientes, así como nuestra experiencia durante la pandemia de COVID-19, sugieren que estamos viendo un cambio de actitud.

Por ejemplo, un estudio encargado por el Departamento de Transporte en 2018 [ii] encontró que los cambios en las circunstancias de vida significaban que la mayoría de los jóvenes ya no obtuvieron una licencia de conducir o condujeron un automóvil con regularidad. El número de adolescentes con carnet de conducir se ha reducido en casi un 40% en dos décadas.

Kiron Chatterjee, profesor asociado de comportamiento de viaje en UWE Bristol, quien dirigió el estudio, dijo que el rechazo al uso de automóviles era la "nueva norma", y agregó que era "difícil imaginar" un regreso a un auge de propiedad de automóviles como el uno observado entre los años sesenta y ochenta.

“Si bien el cambio en el comportamiento de viaje de los jóvenes debe ser bienvenido ya que se alinea con los objetivos de reducir los impactos adversos del uso del transporte, como la contaminación del aire y las emisiones de carbono, es importante que los jóvenes tengan alternativas al automóvil para llegar a educación, empleo y destinos sociales ”, dijo el Dr. Chatterjee. "De lo contrario, podría haber impactos dañinos en sus oportunidades de vida y bienestar".

A medida que avanzamos hacia un modelo de uso cada vez más mixto de regeneración y desarrollo urbano existe una mayor necesidad de integración de modos y usos. Las demandas residenciales son diferentes a las del sector laboral y comercial. Nuestros espacios urbanos se están convirtiendo también cada vez más en un recurso de ocio.

El ámbito público también se extiende al creciente número de áreas públicas en nuestros pueblos y ciudades que se consideran prioritarias para los peatones. Al desarrollar estos espacios, los diseñadores se han centrado en el tráfico peatonal, pero la inclusión de ciclistas y personas discapacitadas es igualmente importante, particularmente con el creciente énfasis en la provisión de uso mixto para reemplazar el dominio del comercio minorista.

Es importante ver cómo funcionan los diferentes modos dentro de los espacios que planificamos ya que esto estará influenciado por la actividad y las comodidades dentro del espacio. Los peatones en una plaza se mueven de una manera totalmente diferente a los ciclistas en una ruta o los ciclistas que quieren buscar rincones. Incluso los peatones se mueven por el espacio de diferentes maneras, como los atletas entre nosotros que corren al trabajo o trazan caminatas o carreras de 1km y/o 5kms para el almuerzo.

El crecimiento del ciclismo nos obliga a repensar una serie de aspectos del entorno construido. Esto se trata con más detalle en los artículos siguientes de esta serie.

La ciudad de 15 minutos

Muchas ciudades del Reino Unido forman parte de una red tradicional de "pueblos" que gradualmente se fueron uniendo como uno solo. En Londres ahora los conocemos como distritos como Clerkenwell, Hampstead, Chelsea, Dulwich, incluso Soho y Marylebone. Las ciudades de todo el mundo ahora están planificando entornos urbanos a una escala que recuerda a esta estructura, y esto está cambiando significativamente nuestra actitud hacia la planificación y provisión del transporte dentro de los esquemas construidos.

El ejemplo más reciente ocurrió a principios de este año cuando la alcaldesa de París, Anne Hidalgo, anunció su intención de remodelar la ciudad para que los residentes y trabajadores puedan tener todas sus necesidades, ya sean de trabajo, compras, salud o cultura, a 15 minutos a pie de su propia "puerta". Esta no es una declaración ociosa; Hidalgo ya prohibió la entrada de los vehículos más contaminantes de la ciudad, desterró a los automóviles del muelle del Sena y recuperó espacio vial para árboles y peatones.

El principio es proporcionar una combinación de muchos usos muy próximos entre sí y del lugar donde vive la gente.

En el último siglo, las autoridades de planificación han separado cuidadosamente las áreas residenciales de los distritos comerciales, de entretenimiento, de fabricación y de oficinas. La zonificación suburbana centrada en el automóvil intensificó aún más esta separación, lo que llevó a una era de desarrollos gigantes, consolidados y de un solo uso. Este enfoque tuvo sentido cuando algunos de los usos se hicieron para vecinos desfavorecidos, pero ahora se considera cada vez más obsoleto.

El concepto de “hiperproximidad [iii]” apunta a unir el tejido urbano tradicional de uso mixto. Otras ciudades están haciendo lo mismo. Barcelona plantea sus "supermanzanas" diseñadas para alentar a las personas que viven dentro de zonas sin automóviles y de varias cuadras a expandir su vida social diaria hacia calles más seguras y limpias, y para fomentar el crecimiento comercial, el entretenimiento y otros servicios de fácil acceso.

Portland, Oregón, ha introducido un concepto de planificación de "vecindario peatonal", que tiene como objetivo establecer vecindarios donde se puedan satisfacer todas las necesidades básicas a una distancia a pie del 90% de la ciudad, mientras que Melbourne en Australia adoptó un patrón similar en un piloto en 2018.

En Barking y Dagenham de Londres, la iniciativa "Every One Every Day" [iv] lleva el modelo de desarrollo hiperlocal en una dirección ligeramente diferente, diseñada para impulsar la cohesión social y las oportunidades económicas.

Impactos más amplios

El uso del automóvil privado puede reducirse, pero seguirá siendo parte de nuestras vidas, aún necesitaremos integrarlo con el transporte público y privado, incluido el caminar, de una manera más inteligente y flexible.

A medida que cambiemos nuestra relación con nuestro entorno urbano inmediato y más amplio las presiones impuestas por los modos de transporte sobre nuestro entorno cambiarán. Aún tendremos que viajar largas distancias, incluso a nivel internacional, pero nuestros espacios urbanos más integrados y flexibles dependerán mucho menos de los vehículos de motor privados y serán mucho más inclusivos. Esto no es solo el resultado de la necesidad de ser más responsables con el medio ambiente sino que será una gran ventaja. En Chapman Taylor, nos aseguramos de que el transporte y nuestra relación con la "calle" y con los seres que la disfrutan sea lo más importante dentro de nuestras consideraciones de diseño.

[i] https://www.livingstreets.org....

[ii] https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/young-peoples-travel-whats-changed-and-why

[iii] Urban life in 2030: hyper-proximity and otherness;

[iv] https://www.weareeveryone.org/

About the Author

Peter Farmer (BArch(Hons) BA Arch(Hons) RIBA)

董事, 伦敦

Peter heads up our Transportation sector in the UK. He undertakes a key role in the continuing development of this sector, related research, masterplanning, due diligence and sustainability.

With over 25 years’ specialist experience across the UK, Central and Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Asia, Australia and the Caribbean, he has an in-depth understanding of the political and business drivers of projects with multiple stakeholders and complex design and delivery teams.

Areas of expertise:

Commercial / Transport

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